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World Handicap System (WHS)

Takes effect in Australia on 30 January 2020

Click here to view a communication summarising the WHS changes.  This communication was sent on 16/1/2020 to all registered users of www.golf.org.au

Download the World Handicap System poster here

Click here to produce a WHS Daily Handicap Look-up Chart for any set of tees in Australia

  • Golf’s two international governing bodies, The R&A and the United States Golf Association (USGA), have worked together with the world’s major handicapping authorities to develop a single handicap system for the game. Golf Australia (GA) is one of the organisations that has been closely involved.

  • www.golf.org.au is the only authorised website that will display your handicap record when the WHS goes live in Australia on 30 January 2020.

  • If you have questions about the WHS you can speak to your club, or you can email Golf Australia at rules&handicapping@golf.org.au

  • Please see below for more information on the WHS in Australia

PART A: Things that stay the same

What does Slope do?

Slope adjusts a player’s handicap to the course they are playing by using that course’s Slope Rating.

What is the aim of Slope?

The aim of Slope is to increase the portability of handicaps and to create a more level playing field for golfers.

What does the Slope Rating provide that the Scratch Rating doesn’t?

Scratch Ratings are based solely on the challenge a golf course poses to an elite player, whereas the Slope Rating has factored into it the challenge posed to the elite player AS WELL as the challenge posed to the non-elite player.

How does this make things more equitable?

We all know that on a difficult course a high-marker’s score tends to deteriorate to a greater extent than the score of an elite player. Just how much more is what Slope measures. For example, if Course A is harder than Course B, a high-marker may play off 28 on Course A and 24 on Course B. The elite player finds it easier to adjust, so they may play off 4 on Course A and 3 on Course B.

Why do we need Scratch Ratings as well as Slope Ratings?

We still need Scratch Ratings. The Slope Rating and the Scratch Rating work in concert with each other. The Slope Rating is telling us how many more shots a player will need at a course in order to play to the Scratch Rating.

What are the features of Slope?

  • Every set of tees on every golf course around the country has a Slope Rating which has been determined in accordance with the course rating system. The maximum Slope Rating is 155 (most difficult) and the minimum is 55 (least difficult). The Neutral Slope Rating is 113. Every set of tees also has a Scratch Rating.

  • GOLF Link calculates a nationally-standardised handicap index for every player. This is called the GA Handicap.

  • A GA Handicap is calculated by averaging the best 8 of a player’s most recent 20 ‘Score Differentials’ (which are all displayed in a player’s handicap record on www.golf.org.au). However, every score in every player’s score history will first be standardised by GOLF Link against a Slope Rating of 113. As a result, the GA Handicap will reflect a golfer’s ability on a course which has the neutral Slope Rating of 113.

  • The GA Handicap is not intended for use as a playing handicap. It is used in conjunction with the Slope Rating of the set of tees being played to calculate a golfer’s playing handicap for the day. This is called the Daily Handicap.

  • It is the GA Handicap that is displayed in a player’s handicap record on www.golf.org.au

  • The further the player’s GA Handicap is from Scratch, the greater will be the impact of the Slope Rating on their Daily Handicap.

  • The Scratch Rating is the number of strokes that a player with a Scratch handicap (ie a player with a GA Handicap of 0.0) is expected to have. The Slope Rating indicates how much harder or easier the course will play for a player who is not a Scratch Marker.

  • Daily Handicap = (GA Handicap x (Slope Rating ÷ 113) + (Scratch Rating minus Par)) x 0.93

  • If that sounds difficult to work out, don’t worry because GOLF Link will calculate it all for you. GA also provides every club with easy-to-use Daily Handicap look-up posters.

A player’s handicap will continue to be updated by GOLF Link on the same day a score is processed.

Players are not required to play a minimum number of rounds each year in order to maintain their GA Handicaps.

  • Clubs have the option to handicap 9-hole scores. GA encourages clubs to adopt this option.

  • The initial 9-hole score a player returns is entered into GOLF Link; it is not immediately used in the calculation of the player’s GA Handicap. It is automatically held by GOLF Link in the player’s handicap record (together with the relevant 9-hole course rating) until another 9-hole score is entered. As soon as a second 9-hole score is entered into GOLF Link, the two 9-hole scores are combined automatically by GOLF Link to create a single 18-hole score.

  • Two 9-hole scores do not need to be played consecutively. Multiple 18-hole rounds may be played between the play of two 9-hole scores.

  • An ‘un-joined’ 9-hole score will only expire when it is no longer in the player’s most recent 20 scores.

  • The GOLF Link database holds 9-hole ratings for each club’s front 9 and back 9. As a result, 9-hole scores are compared against the actual difficulty of the 9 holes that have been played (and not simply 50% of the 18-hole value).

  • There is no requirement for the two 9-hole scores being combined to have been played at the same course. For example, whilst it would be fine for two 9-hole scores from the front 9 at Royal Sydney to be combined, it would be equally fine for a score from the back 9 at Brisbane Golf Club to be combined with a score from the front 9 at Newcastle Golf Club.

  • For handicapping, all stroke scores must be converted to (and processed as) Stableford scores. (Where the competition is Stroke, the Stroke score is the Competition Score; the Stableford Score is the Handicapping Score).

  • Players and clubs do not need to record Stableford scores in Par competitions. Any round played under the Par scoring system is automatically converted by GOLF Link into a Stableford score by adding 36 points to the player’s final result. For example, GOLF Link will convert a score of 4 down into 32 points; the score of 32 points is the player’s Handicapping Score.

  • If a player is competing in a Stroke, Par, or Maximum Score competition, their Stableford score is disregarded when assessing Competition placings.

What is the purpose of the Stableford Handicap Adjustment regulation?

  • To reduce the impact of high hole scores in order to make handicaps more representative of a player’s potential ability.

  • To make all handicaps as equitable as possible by using a uniform score type for handicapping. (Note: 78% of handicapping scores across Australia are Stableford or Par. This regulation enables us to use the small proportion of handicapping scores that are stroke scores in a way that is consistent with the dominant score type of Stableford and Par). The SHA regulation ensures that there is uniform score type used for handicapping and that all Australian handicaps are ‘Stableford handicaps'. Without SHA, some players would have ‘Stableford handicaps’ and other players would have hybrid handicaps based on a mix of Stableford and Stroke.

In stroke competitions and maximum score competitions, how does my club comply with the GOLF Link data provision requirements of the SHA regulation?

  • Members of clubs with hole-by-hole computerised scoring systems have their Stableford scores automatically calculated for them by their club computer system.

  • Members of clubs without hole-by-hole computerised scoring systems need to list on their scorecard a total stroke score and a total Stableford score. As a result, the exact same work is required of players in a Stroke or Maximum Score competition as for a Stableford competition (except they also have to add up their hole-by-hole stroke scores to get an 18-hole stroke total). Whilst the Rules of Golf do not require a player to record Stableford scores, club sanctions should be applied to players who refuse to assist their Committee (eg player not eligible to enter the NEXT competition – GA will support clubs in writing on this). It is fundamental to the culture of Australian golf that players assist their club committees by recording Stableford scores on their score cards when required.

Social scores may be used for handicapping if the player’s home club has chosen to allow the use of social scores, and if the player has nominated prior to starting a round that it is to count for handicap purposes. Otherwise, social scores will not be permitted for handicap purposes.

  • GOLF Link automatically prevents a player’s GA Handicap from increasing by any more than 5 strokes beyond their best GA Handicap from the previous 12-month rolling period. (Note: The Hard Cap does not limit the movement of Daily Handicaps from day to day if a player happens to be playing on a variety of courses which have substantially different Slope Ratings.)

  • The Hard Cap eliminates the capacity for extreme outward movements of a GA Handicap within short spaces of time.

  • As a result, a loss of form does not cause a player’s GA Handicap to move too far from a level which is consistent with their underlying ability.

  • The Hard Cap also makes the handicap system less susceptible to manipulation.

  • See Part C for information on the new Soft Cap regulation. Under the WHS, a GA Handicap will continue to increase at the rate of 100% of the ‘8 of 20 scores’ calculation UNTIL it reaches 3 strokes above its best point from the previous 12 months. Once in this new Soft Cap zone, a player’s GA Handicap will only be allowed to increase by 50% of the calculated amount.

  • Slope Ratings, Scratch Ratings, Pars, Daily Handicaps and 18-hole PCCs are all whole numbers (ie they are not calculated to a decimal place). 9-hole PCCs can have decimal values of ‘.0’ or ‘.5’.

  • GA Handicaps are calculated to one decimal place.

Clubs have the option to use the Australian method for handicapping four-ball scores. Otherwise, four-ball scores may not be used for handicap purposes unless they have been played in conjunction with a singles round and it is the singles scores that are being handicapped.

  • A player is required to submit 3 x 18-hole scores (or 6 x 9-hole scores, or a combination of the two) to obtain a GA Handicap.

  • Note: Clubs should enter scores immediately into GOLF Link upon receipt (i.e. don’t wait for all 54 holes to be played).

Handicapping of match play scores is not permitted.

PART B: Things that involve some change

  • The 0.93 Multiplier will be transferred out of the GA Handicap calculation and into the Daily Handicap calculation. Note: Our statisticians confirm this change will have no overall impact on the handicaps players actually play off (ie Daily Handicaps). This is because the slight increase it will cause to GA Handicaps (by being removed from that formula), will be exactly the same as the decrease it will cause to Daily Handicaps (by being transferred into this formula). As a result there will be no overall impact. [See Item 13 for the full new Daily Handicap formula and for an example of the calculation.]

  • For people who have at least 20 scores in their handicap record, their GA Handicap will be calculated simply by averaging the best 8 of their most recent 20 results.

  • There is also a small change under the WHS for people who have fewer than 20 rounds in their handicap record. Under the WHS, if a player has returned fewer than 20 rounds, the table below is used to calculate their GA Handicap. The table determines the number of ‘Score Differentials’ from the player’s handicap record on www.golf.org.au that are to be included in the calculation, as well as any adjustment that needs to be automatically applied. (Note: The result of the calculation is rounded to the nearest tenth.)

WHS slope graph_image

Why the change?

Have you ever heard someone ask: “So, if I have 36 points, will that mean I’ve played to my handicap?” To which the answer is: “It kind of depends on whether there’s a difference between the Scratch Rating and the par……”? Well we’ve heard plenty of feedback that this is confusing…… And the simple change happening under the WHS means 36 Stableford points will become the universal measure of whether a player has played to their handicap. Regardless of the course or set of tees.

What is another key benefit?

Comparing results in multi-tee and mixed-gender competitions will be made simple – we’ve also heard the feedback on this and we know that the pre-WHS complexities are a barrier for many clubs. The change will help to drive game participation and engagement initiatives. It will also make it easier for clubs to manage their legal risk around compliance with the 1984 Federal sex discrimination law (see the Australian Human Rights Commission publication titled ‘Guidelines for the promotion of equal opportunity for women and girls in golf’ – www.golf.org.au/equality-guidelines).

So what is the actual change?

The Daily Handicap formula will include an adjustment when the Scratch Rating is different to the Par. For example: Scratch Rating 73, Par 70 – Daily Handicaps will increase by 3* (ie 73 - 70 = +3); Scratch Rating 68, Par 70 – Daily Handicaps will decrease by 2* (ie 68 - 70 = -2). Note: *the Daily Handicap calculation usually produces a number with multiple decimal places, which is then rounded to a whole number; in some cases the rounding will soften the impact of the adjustment by 1.

Do you need to remember how all of this is done?

No! Because it will all be done for you by the computers and the Daily Handicap Look-up Charts.

New Daily Handicap formula = (GA Handicap x (Slope Rating ÷ 113) + (Scratch Rating minus Par)) x 0.93.

WHS Handicap formula_image

  • The WHS will feature a statistical daily rating system. It will be called PCC (Playing Conditions Calculation).

  • The WHS daily rating formulas and regulations have been in full effect in Australia since May 2019.

  • The PCC will be displayed on your handicap record as an adjustment value (eg ‘+2’ or ‘-1’) rather than a value such as ‘68’ or ‘72’ which happened pre-WHS under the Australian DSR system.

  • PCCs are permitted to range anywhere between -1 (ie easier conditions) and +3 (harder conditions).

How does the Playing Conditions Calculation (PCC) system work?

Under the PCC system, GOLF Link assesses a current course rating adjustment for you each day. This adjustment value is appropriate to the conditions you actually experienced. GOLF Link does all of the work and provides the PCC immediately after the scores are processed. Through GOLF Link, the PCC system establishes:

  • The expected average Stableford score for each player in the competition, based on their Daily Handicap; and

  • The actual Stableford score for each player in the competition.

Then GOLF Link establishes the proportion of players who scored below expectation by one, two, three, etc Stableford points and similarly for those who scored above expectations.

  • Using statistical concepts, it is possible to determine from these proportions the likely level by which the conditions were different from what is normal.

  • The greater the field size, the more likely it is that a given level of variation in scores will lead to the conclusion that the variation is beyond normal random movements.

  • The PCC formulas are quite conservative – the PCC value will only be different to zero if the scores clearly suggest then an adjustment is warranted. (18-hole PCCs will always be whole numbers. 9-hole PCCs are permitted to range anywhere between -0.5 (ie easier conditions) and +1.5 (harder conditions); 9-hole PCCs can have decimal values of ‘.0’ or ‘.5’.)

Does the PCC system require any work by clubs?

No. GOLF Link does all of the work. It provides the PCC value immediately after the scores are processed.

Why do we need course ratings?

  • The objective of a course rating system is to enable us to standardise scores.

  • A gross score must first be standardised before it can be used for handicapping.

  • Standardisation enables us to meaningfully assess the value of a score, and to meaningfully compare it with all other scores. For example, is 78 a good score? In order to answer that question we need to know the difficulty of the course. (For example, 78 from the championship tees at The Australian Golf Club is a much better achievement than 78 on a par 3 course.)

  • Course ratings are intended to precisely measure the difficulty a course presents to a golfer in the playing of their round.

  • If the rating of a course is not a true reflection of the difficulty it presented to a golfer in the playing of a round, the player’s standardised score for that round will be inaccurate. If the standardised score is inaccurate, the player’s handicap will be distorted (ie if inputs are inaccurate, so must the output also be inaccurate).

  • For this reason, every set of tees on every golf course has a Scratch Rating assessed for it by a group of State/Territory experts.

What is the benefit of assessing each day whether any adjustment of the Scratch Rating is warranted to account for abnormal playing conditions?

  • We all know that the difficulty of a golf course can vary substantially from day to day. Daily fluctuation can be caused by changed hole placements, varying green speeds & green firmness, and changed weather.

  • With the vast majority of Australia’s golfers playing in coastal cities that are prone to variable weather conditions, it is particularly important for Australia to have a handicap system that is sufficiently flexible to cater for daily movements in playing conditions. If we don’t, we end up processing scores against inaccurate ratings, and that makes handicaps inaccurate.

  • PCC leads to more stable and comparable handicaps than if the vagaries of fluctuations in conditions from day to day and season to season prevail.

What role in the handicap system does PCC actually perform in the calculation of a handicap?

  • A player’s gross score is compared against the PCC-adjusted Scratch Rating value in order to determine a player’s ‘Raw Score Differential’ for that round. (The ‘Raw Score Differential’ is displayed in a player’s handicap record on www.golf.org.au).

  • PCCs are NOT used to retrospectively adjust the results of a competition that has already been played. When reading out competition results, if a player had 40 points, the Captain would announce that the player had 40 points (irrespective of the PCC).

  • PCCs are NOT used to retrospectively adjust the Daily Handicap that a golfer played off in a competition that has already been played. When reading out competition results, if a player played off a Daily Handicap of 23, the Captain would announce that the player played off a Daily Handicap of 23 (irrespective of the PCC).

Can the PCC strategy be summarised in one paragraph?

PCC helps to provide golfers with a rating that is a reflection of the conditions they played under. The formulas determine whether the difficulty presented at the time by the playing conditions was normal or different to normal.

  • The maximum GA Handicap under the WHS is 54.0 for both men and women.

  • Your club’s handicap & competition management software can choose default handicap limits lower than 54 for any (or all) competitions.

  • For example, your club may choose to set Daily Handicap limits at 36 for men and 45 for women for most competitions. And then use a higher limit for beginner competitions or for events for less-skilled players.

PART C: Things that are new

  • A GA Handicap will continue to increase at the current rate of 100% of the ‘8 of 20 scores’ calculation UNTIL it reaches 3 strokes above its best point from the previous 12 months. Once in this new Soft Cap zone, a player’s GA Handicap will only be allowed to increase by 50% of the calculated amount.

Example

WHS GA handicap calculation_image
  • A player’s ‘8 of 20 scores’ calculation is 17.2, but their best GA Handicap from the previous 12 months is 11.2, which is 6 strokes less.

  • Their GA Handicap calculation becomes 11.2 + 3 + (50% of 3) to equal 15.7.

  • Statistical modelling indicates that the Soft Cap will impact up to 20% of the total number of handicap calculations performed by GOLF Link each year. The introduction of the Soft Cap will reduce the percentage of players impacted by the Hard Cap from 5% down to less than 1.5%.

  • GA has been aware for some time that our pre-WHS handicap system produced a competitive advantage to the inconsistent player over the consistent player and we have been looking for a way to soften this outcome. The Soft Cap will improve this situation and will improve the equity of Australian handicapping.

  • GOLF Link will apply an automatic additional reduction to a player’s GA Handicap if they have an ‘exceptional score’.

  • If the player’s score is 7.0 - 9.9 strokes better than what their GA Handicap was at the time the round was played then GOLF Link will apply an automatic additional reduction of 1.0 strokes to their GA Handicap. If the player’s score is at least 10.0 strokes better than what their GA Handicap was at the time the round was played, then GOLF Link will apply an automatic additional reduction of 2.0 strokes to their GA Handicap.

  • To establish whether a score is exceptional, GOLF Link will compare the player’s GA Handicap at the time the round was played with the number in the ‘Score Differential’ column for that round. (The ‘Score Differential’ column is one of the columns that is displayed in a player’s handicap record on www.golf.org.au.)

PART D: Operational guidance

Your ‘Score Differentials’ are the most important element in the calculation of your GA Handicap (see below for the ‘Score Differentials’ formula and for an explanation of what a ‘Score Differential’ represents).  The ‘Score Differentials’ are what your GA Handicap is based on.

GA HANDICAP CALCULATION PROCESS FOR PLAYER WITH 20 OR MORE SCORES IN THEIR HANDICAP RECORD

  • For people who have at least 20 scores in their handicap record, their GA Handicap will be calculated simply by averaging the best 8 of their most recent 20 ‘Score Differentials’. Unless the Cap Regulation applies.

  • The Cap regulation eliminates the capacity for extreme outward movements of a GA Handicap within short spaces of time. As a result, a temporary loss of form will not cause a GA Handicap to move too far from a level which is consistent with the player’s underlying ability.

  • The Cap regulation permits a player’s GA Handicap to increase at 100% of the ‘8 of 20 scores’ calculation UNTIL it reaches 3 strokes above their ‘Low GA Handicap’. (The ‘Low GA Handicap’ is defined as being the best GA Handicap the player has achieved during the 12-month period that preceded their most recent round.)

  • Once in this Soft Cap zone, GOLF Link only allows the player’s GA Handicap to increase by 50% of the calculated amount – unless it reaches the Hard Cap.

  • The Hard Cap is an absolute limit on the upward movement of a GA Handicap. When the player’s NEXT round is processed through GOLF Link, the GA Handicap that will be calculated for them can not be any more than 5 strokes above their current ‘Low GA Handicap’.

  • Note: See Section 7 and Section 16 on www.golf.org.au/whs for more information on the Cap Regulation. The Cap Regulation is only permitted to impact a player’s handicap once they have more than 20 scores in their handicap record.

GA HANDICAP CALCULATION PROCESS FOR PLAYER WITH FEWER THAN 20 SCORES IN THEIR HANDICAP RECORD

  • For people who have fewer than 20 rounds in their handicap record, the table below is used to calculate their GA Handicap. The table determines the number of ‘Score Differentials’ from the player’s handicap record on www.golf.org.au that are to be included in the calculation, as well as any adjustment that needs to be automatically applied.

Calculation process

OTHER POINTS TO NOTE IN THE CALCULATION OF A G.A. HANDICAP

  • GA Handicaps are calculated to one decimal place. The result of the calculation is rounded to the nearest tenth.

  • 0.35 rounds to 0.4, 0.3501 rounds to 0.4, 0.55 rounds to 0.6, 0.5501 rounds to 0.6, 5.35 rounds to 5.4, 5.3501 rounds to 5.4, 5.55 rounds to 5.6, 5.5501 rounds to 5.6, etc.

  • +0.35 rounds to +0.3, +0.3501 rounds to +0.4, +0.55 rounds to +0.5, +0.5501 rounds to +0.6, +5.35 rounds to +5.3, +5.3501 rounds to +5.4, +5.55 rounds to +5.5, +5.5501 rounds to +5.6, etc.

  • The upper limit for the calculation of a GA Handicap is 54.0.

WHAT IS A ‘SCORE DIFFERENTIAL’?

The ‘Score Differential’ for a round is our calculation of the handicap you actually played to in that round. To generate a ‘Score Differential’ we use the global method to standardise your score to what it would have been had you played from a set of tees with neutral difficulty. (A set of tees with neutral difficulty has a Slope Rating of 113.) What this means is that a score on a difficult course will be made a little better by the standardisation process. And a score on a less-challenging course will be made a little higher. Because of this standardisation process, your ‘Score Differential’ for a round can be directly compared with a ‘Score Differential’ for any other player on any other golf course. But the most important outcome of the standardisation process is that your GA Handicap can be directly compared with any other person’s GA Handicap (and anyone else who has a handicap calculated under the World Handicap System), regardless of the course and tees where they play most of their golf. This is what makes handicaps portable around the world and handicap competitions fair.

WHS formula
  • ‘Score Differentials’ are calculated to one decimal place. The result of the calculation is rounded to the nearest tenth.)

  • 0.35 rounds to 0.4, 0.3501 rounds to 0.4, 0.55 rounds to 0.6, 0.5501 rounds to 0.6, 5.35 rounds to 5.4, 5.3501 rounds to 5.4, 5.55 rounds to 5.6, 5.5501 rounds to 5.6, etc.

  • +0.35 rounds to +0.3, +0.3501 rounds to +0.4, +0.55 rounds to +0.5, +0.5501 rounds to +0.6, +5.35 rounds to +5.3, +5.3501 rounds to +5.4, +5.55 rounds to +5.5, +5.5501 rounds to +5.6, etc.

  • There is no upper limit or lower limit for the calculation of a ‘Score Differential’.

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE REDUCTION REGULATION

When an exceptional score is processed through GOLF Link, the player’s GA Handicap will be automatically reduced in accordance with the following adjustment table:

exceptional score
  • A single exceptional score will trigger a reduction.

  • Reductions for multiple exceptional scores are applied cumulatively.

  • A reduction is automatically applied within the calculation of a player’s updated GA Handicap following the submission of an exceptional score.

  • A reduction for an exceptional score is applied by adjusting each of the most recent 20 ‘Score Differentials’ in the player’s handicap record, which includes the ‘Score Differential’ for the exceptional score round. As a result, the impact of the reduction will remain after the next score is submitted, but it will dilute over time as new scores are submitted.

  • Where there are fewer than 20 scores in a player’s handicap record at the time an exceptional score is submitted, the reduction is applied by adjusting all of the ‘Score Differentials’ recorded in the player's handicap record, which includes the exceptional score.

  • A club is permitted to override any adjustment for an exceptional score if it considers that the adjustment would result in a player’s GA Handicap not being a fair reflection of their demonstrated ability.

How to calculate a Daily Handicap
  • The result of the calculation is rounded to the nearest whole number.

  • 0.5 rounds to 1, 0.501 rounds to 1, 10.5 rounds to 11, 10.501 rounds to 11, 20.5 rounds to 21, 20.501 rounds to 21, etc.

  • +0.5 rounds to Scratch, +0.501 rounds to +1, +1.5 rounds to +1, +1.501 rounds to +2, +2.5 rounds to +2, +2.501 rounds to +3, etc.

  • There is no upper limit or lower limit for the calculation of a Daily Handicap.

  • Why do we include a 0.93 multiplication in the calculation of a Daily Handicap? The 0.93 factor is called ‘the Multiplier’. The Multiplier is a balancing factor designed to offset the impact of players on different handicap levels having different levels of consistency. In general, skilled players are more consistent than less-skilled players, so if we didn’t have the Multiplier there would be a strong advantage for high-handicap players in handicap competitions.

  • USE OF DAILY HANDICAPS FOR 9-HOLE ROUNDS: Committees should use the 18-hole stroke index to determine how many handicap strokes each player will receive for the 9 holes being played. Consider the following example: Michelle has a Daily Handicap of 3 on a course with the following stroke index: the number 1 stroke index hole is the 4th, the number 2 stroke index hole is the 13th, and the number 3 stroke index hole is the 6th. When Michelle plays holes 1-9, she will receive strokes on the 4th and the 6th in Stableford or Par, and in Stroke Play she will receive 2 strokes for that 9. When Michelle plays holes 10-18, she will receive a stroke on the 13th in Stableford or Par, and in Stroke Play she will receive 1 stroke for that 9.

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